Forty Seven Years Ago

It was forty seven years ago pastoral Mission Valley was changed forever.  The city at large began to change as well.  Excitement over three new malls–College Grove, Grossmont Center, and Mission Valley–resulted in a decline for downtown department stores and merchants.  El Cajon Boulevard also lost its prestige as a shopping and business corridor as people flocked to the three new shopping centers.

The May Company became the premiere department store in San Diego when it opened with the Mission Valley Shopping Center in 1961.  It was designed by William S. Lewis.

Its most attractive feature was the restaurant. One could luncheon and enjoy a panoramic view.  I remember it being a pretty reliable place to get a burger, sandwich or salad.

But department store restaurants fell out of favor.  This unique space is used for nothing more than storage today.
The serrated roof line of the main building complements the restaurant roof line perfectly.  I remember the main building being a yellowish gold color.  It seems those colors have also fallen out of favor nowadays.

The May Company on Wilshire and Fairfax in Los Angeles prominently displays gold.

Frank Lloyd Wright originally envisioned the Marin County Civic Center with a Gold color roof.   Blue won out, however the roof trim ornament is goldish, as are the portal rails.

The lack luster beige probably came about when May Co and Robinsions merged.  Now it is Macy’s.

One wonders if this element will survive future expansion plans for the mall.  Adding a second deck is proposed.  I won’t be surprised if all existing mid century design aspects are erased and replaced with the “anywhere in America” look.  I’m not sure many people remember this as a restaurant.  It is most likely just viewed as an inadequate storage space.  Would be nice though if the new plans solved their expansion needs and preserved the old cafe and brought it back.

Squeak, Squeak, Squeak.

I surveyed a number of Northern California Frank Lloyd Wright structures in April of 1971. One of my favorites is the Bazett House in Hillsborough, 1939. It is one of Wright’s finest “Usonian” houses. This is a category of house characterized by reduced building cost via simplified design.

Wright’s Usonia doctrine includes flat roofs. “Visible roofs are expensive and unnecessary.”

Carport instead of garage. Slab foundation–no basement. Simplified plumbing. Radiant heating.

This house was designed with a hexagonal grid or layout. Note the playful pattern this creates with the glass living room wall. Wright loved blending where exterior space ends and interior space begins. It is a common trait for the Usonian houses to be wide open toward the garden, but closed and private on the side facing the street. That closed side was often butted up along the street to maximize garden space and vista at the open side.

Wright utilized a cost efficient wall system known as “Board and Batton.”

“It is possible to build the inside and outside of the house in one operation,” Said Wright.
The system consisted of a plywood core with a moisture-proof membrane. Finished horizontal bands of wood were placed over the core inside and out, secured by screws.

Wright’s Usonian houses were not large. The most generous amount of space was devoted to the living area. The kitchen was galley like. Modest bathrooms. The Bazett House is 1,480 square feet.

The building was over budget. $7,000 was the allocation but projected costs were nearly $12,000. Yet the Bazetts by all accounts were enthusiastic owners.

Many of Wright’s over runs have been highlighted and widely publicized.

However Architect Bob Green, once an apprentice to Wright, offers some perspective on the subject.

“..It was said that all of the buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright leaked, and all were over budget. Not true! He did many houses for teachers, college professors and people not highly paid and who did not have the money for the building to be much over budget. And as far as leaking roofs: maintenance must be done on buildings–as well as cars–or in time neither will not work very well.”

Sadly there was trauma for the Bazetts. The birth of a still born child. After only two years of residence, they moved out and lived separate lives.
The residents I spoke with were the second owners of this property. They were kind enough to talk about their life in a Frank Lloyd Wright house and allow me to take these photographs.
They said living in this house is a perpetual source of fascination. Every day brings some new light, pattern, glow, shadow or reflection they hadn’t seen before. From morning to night. From Winter to Summer. “The house always delights us with surprise and wonder. It is uplifting to live in this beautiful space. We’re as thrilled now as the day we moved in.”

The closed side of the house facing the street. The purpose of the patterned cut out window design is mainly decorative and for interior lighting effect.

The owner’s story I enjoyed most was about waking up early one Sunday morning to the sound of “squeak, squeak, squeak.” They went to look and viewed the unmistakable low brim hat, the flowing cape, walking cane hooked over an arm, and dapper attire of non other than Frank Lloyd Wright as he stood outside cleaning windows with his handkerchief.

Many a Wright owner I’ve spoken with had similar stories. Wright showing up with an object of art and knowing exactly where he wanted it placed. Wright coming in an moving furniture around, arranging things.
He liked to say his favorite design was “always the next.” It seems these unexpected appearances indicates he also he had old favorites as well.

Classical Gas; Running on Empty

Note: The following story is also illustrated with video clips via the highlighted and underlined links within the text.

Once a familiar site on the American Landscape many of these old Texaco stations stubbornly live on as rusted venues for various enterprises.

The “banjo sign” was its most recognizable feature.

Their slogan was “You can trust your car with the man who wears the star.”

They were called “Service Stations.” One never had to dirty one’s hands on the unwieldy hose and nozzle. Attendants popped open the hood and checked the oil, battery, brake fluid, radiator, and fan belts. Windshields cleaned and tire pressure checked. Typically motorists wandered over to a soda machine and relaxed while their car was checked over, filled and “topped off.”

You could always count on a road map being available. If there was a charge for one, it was nominal. I seem to recall they were free all through the 1960’s.

Children could enjoy playing with their own Texaco station. The Texaco station design appearantly emerged from the early 1930’s. They were white with green trim, red stars, and banjo sign.

Oceanside, CA. The bands of trim are always a clue even though the stations now look different.

It would have been 3 bands of green trim.

This old station on U.S. 101 in Leucadia was remodeled, but I suspected it once was a Texaco.

I ran the question past Scott. He confirmed it was indeed a Texaco Station from the early 1930’s.

Another old Texaco in North Park, San Diego.

On the same block is this old station. But no clue. I have the feeling it was formerly a Richfield Station.

There were many stations to choose from. Many brands. The competition was strong. There was the term “Gas War.” It didn’t mean war in the Middle East, as one might suppose today. It meant one dealer would out do the other dealer for the lowest possible price.

An oldie in Encinitas, CA. It appears the structure featured an apartment above the gas station. In addition to Gas Wars there were various incentives such as trading stamps.

There were three competing trading stamps I recall. Orange Stamps, S&H Green stamps, and Blue Chip Stamps. The concept is modified today in the form of “cash rewards,” or “Airline Miles” offered by credit cards. I remember Shell had a game called Presidential Portraits. If you collected the portraits of all U.S. Presidents, you won a prize. It wasn’t easy though. You amassed a large trove of Millard Filmores but could never get a Zachary Taylor. China collections and silverware were often incentives.

Signal is a gas you never see anymore. A lot of petroleum was produced in the Los Angeles region, especially Signal Hill.

Gilmore Gasoline came from the grounds of the Fairfax District in Los Angeles.

Gilmore was gobbled by Mobil. The distinctive pegasus was eventually phased out by Mobil. This station is in Flagstaff, AZ.

Douglas Gas, very popular in the 1950’s and 1960’s, had refining operations out of Long Beach. They were gobbled up by Continental Oil. Continental became Conoco which merged with Phillips. ConocoPhillips today is one of the “Big Six Super Majors.” Another old brand bought up by ConocoPhillips is Union 76, or Unical. Union 76 stations were known to have a higher price. However in the day when stations actually provided service, theirs was always considered top notch. They had a jingle:

“You always get the finest
The very best, the finest
At the sign of the 76
Whether you stop in for water or air
To powder your nose or comb your hair.
You always get the finest
The very best, the finest
At the sign of the 76.
It’s orange and blue,
So look for that Union
Sign of the finest —
The sign of the 76.”

You may notice PhillipsConoco has discarded 76 Orange for red. The 76 ball is apparently being phased out as well as some of their landmark stations.

The most interesting gas station I photographed was Russel’s Gas Station on Sawtelle Blvd. in West Los Angeles. It appeared unchanged, except for weathered paint, since the 1920’s.

I’ve misplaced most of my shots of it. These pictures are from 1983. I remember Huell Howser discovered Russel’s when he was with KCET, Public Broadcasting in Los Angeles. “Now wait a minute! You mean to tell me you’ve been here since WHEN? GAW-LEE!” Needless to say the site is extinct now.

I was able to locate one of my shots of Russel’s Gas Station in the form of a CD cover for the band Building 14 and their album “Fuel For The Messiah.” The label on the pumps is Seaside Gas, a later day “Independent.” But the pumps appear to have been painted over many times. I seem to recall it being a Richfield station before.

Gulf was a frequently seen sign.

Gulf was gobbled up by Chevron. Many old Gulf stations became the independent “GO-LO,” whatever that means.

Advertising at times seemed to be saying one thing but meaning another.

Kum and Go is based in Iowa. It is a very popular mid west gasoline brand.

Another unusual name.

As the companies merged, competition dried up. Prices skyrocketed and “service” was completely eliminated from stations. The prices here are almost the “good old days.” We hear a lot of explanations of why the prices have gone up. Besides the usual ones–OPEC pulls the strings, too much demand–I have to laugh at some of the others. “The price has gone up because of worries about hurricanes this season,” “A refinery had to close for a month because of maintenance.” Why not “upset caused by Britney Spears’ bad smelling feet on a trans atlantic flight?”

In the NEWS on February 1st it was reported Exxon posted the highest quartly profit of any company in the history of the universe. But not by charging the prices shown at this BARFF Station.

There Used To Be A Ballpark Right Here

And there used to be a ballpark
Where the field was warm and green
And the people played their crazy game
With a joy I’d never seen.
And the air was such a wonder
From the hot dogs and the beer
Yes, there used a ballpark, right here.

Born from the design table of Gary Allen at Frank L. Hope and Associates, San Diego Stadium opened in August of 1967. Gary Allen came there with experience working under the renown architect Philip Johnson. To the architects of the mid century modern era, designing stadiums as multi function venues made sense. Combining football and baseball use in one facility was a strong selling point in San Diego for the 1965 stadium bond measure. Although no opposing arguments appeared on the ballot, I well remember hearing the debate. “The teams can’t fill stadiums they have already, why should we build them a new one?”

Of all the 1960’s multi use stadiums, San Diego Stadium stands alone architecturally. It opted for a pure, simple yet bold look achieved in poured concrete. Other stadiums of the period did not show nearly the same level of aesthetic consideration. It should be noted the American Institute of Architects Honor award in 1969 was given to San Diego Stadium for outstanding design. This was the first time ever a San Diego structure received an A.I.A national honor award.

The concrete work here is superb. The grandstand is cradled by the ribs of a colonnade that rise to support light fixtures.

The simplicity perhaps disguises the thought put into this. The slanted colonnade, and top sloping of the elevator column gives a touch of elegance.

It seems the strong smooth gray concrete forms were meant to have an undecorated raw beauty. Extremely bold accent colors in the concourse served as spice and contrast.

It was after all the 1960’s. From London’s Carnaby Street to the Sunset Strip, art, fashion and architecture reapproached uses of color. The smooth poured concrete surfaces find texture relief in the concourse areas with colored square blocks.

A nearly op art looking fence obscures generators and compressors.

Through the years decision makers grew dissatisfied with the bare gray concrete. More and more of the stadium was coated in Chargers blue paint.

The stadium was originally open with a view at the east end. From the grandstands it was most pleasant viewing east mission valley, the mountains, freeway lights and the periodic moon rise. A breeze was mostly gentle and pleasant–although it could be chilly and swirly at times. I remember attending a baseball game that saw a “dust devil” kick up. It whirled and swirled around the grandstand collecting trash and debris before moving onto the baseball diamond. It was a tornado of trash that seemed to purposely pursue one umpire. The players and fans laughed hysterically as the umpire threw up his hands to stop the game and try to escape the determined twister. Finally when it died out and all the trash landed, a crew ran on the field and picked up the mess. A Jack In The Box hamburger wrapper clung to the umpire’s rear quarters for two innings more before another umpire peeled it off to laughter and ovation of the crowd.
The stadium as it looks today is much different than in these photos. The original accent color scheme is gone. The open east end is now enclosed with grandstands. A whole list of problems developed with plumbing, water, toilets, sewer and electrical systems designed to serve 50,000 people having to serve over 70,000. The Chargers are dissatisfied with the size of the press corps facilities, the number of high value luxury suites, the size of the locker rooms and trainer’s facilities, and many other issues.

But it is hard to see losing this fine example of a public mid century modern work as justified for the reasons mentioned. Existing trends, however, do not favor the stadium’s future. Steinbrenner’s NY Yankees, tor example, are intent on abandoning hallowed grounds–“The House That Ruth Built.” Extremely wealthy franchise owners have an expectation for municipalities to ask “how high?” when they say “jump.” It is fair to examine how the pouring of over $60 million dollars into renovations of San Diego Stadium in 1997 failed to satisfy the NFL and team owners. The drumbeat for a new facility has been ongoing for years now. That $60 million dollars doesn’t seem to have bought the taxpayers and sports fans much time on the calendar. The facility is only 40 years old. And only 10 years removed from massive remodeling.

It certainly seems San Diego Stadium–aka Jack Murphy, Qualcomm Stadium–is nearing an end. If this venue is lost someone will surely play the old Frank Sinatra song, There Used To Be A Ballpark Right Here.

PCH: Roadside Stops and Detours

The invasion began in 1962. Through the mid 1960’s until 1974 many areas of the U.S.A became the land of giants. Enormous fiberglass men, some twenty feet tall, stood over muffler shops, miniature golf courses, tire stores, and other venues. This population explosion of big men occurred because businesses with them became hugely successful immediately after installation. Back in the 1960’s you could order one for as little as $1,800. With added features and accessories–maybe a hamburger, golf club, or lumberjack ax, and other ad-ons including various garments, hats or facial hair–the price could be as much as $2,800. The basic big man ordered in quantity by a franchise chain could be purchased for a mere $1,000 a unit.

There was a female version produced as well. She was rendered with features resembling Jackie Kennedy. The tall figure had a removable dress and wore a bikini bathing suit underneath.

The giant in the above photo was called Malibu Man. He was a hamburger chef towering over a burger joint on Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) in Malibu. Steve Dashew the entrepreneur behind these big men took special satisfaction with this particular model. It was coincidentally built next to where his ex girlfriend lived. “I thought she’d appreciate the remembrance.”

The figure still stands, but perhaps in a most revealing sign of the times, he is now called Salsa Man. He sports a mustache, wears a sombrero, and has a serape over his shoulder. The hamburger has been replaced by a tray of Mexican food. [1]

This is a detailed replica of Villa dei Papiri, a Roman villa in the town of Herculaneum, which was buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. Much of the ancient sight was visible only by camera inserted through shafts drilled in the solidified volcanic flow. The man that could afford such a venture was J. Paul Getty. His Museum overlooks the Pacific Ocean in Malibu, just off of PCH.

The gardens, the beauty of the architecture, the gorgeous bluff overlooking the Pacific makes the J. Paul Getty Museum (Now simply called The Villa) a soul soothing place on earth. It reopened in February of 2006 after nearly 12 years and $275 million dollars of remodeling. The museum previously housed both ancient and modern art. Then a second Getty Museum was built in Brentwood to house the modern collection. The Malibu museum closed to reconfigure for the ancient collection and to install teaching/educational facilities.

The original version of the museum was completed in 1974. Getty was living in England at the time and died before he could make the trip back to view his creation. The sorting out of his estate took until 1982 when the J. Paul Getty Museum became the world’s most richly endowed exhibition. Getty bequest 1.2 billion dollars for his art house. [2]

Another monument achieved by extreme wealth is Hearst Castle. This is the magnificent Neptune swimming pool, an architectural masterpiece surrounded by fourth-century Roman columns, Italian bas-reliefs, and contemporary statues from Paris.

The pool is lined with marble quarried in Vermont. The pool was enlarged twice after the original was completed in 1924. The pool as it is today was completed in 1936. As big as it appears, it is some 60 feet shorter than an Olympic size pool.

Hearst Castle in San Simeon is exactly half way between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Either city is two hundred miles away.

This being a “house” with 165 bedrooms and 41 bathrooms, there are 5 different tours offered. Ticket prices range from $20 to $30 for adults. Well worth every penny. Well worth repeat visits to experience all five tours–which I haven’t done yet. But it is on the agenda. [3]

There’s something enchanting about the mix of scents from the ocean and the red woods of Big Sur. The calming peace and quiet found here attracted the likes of Henry Miller, Jack Kerouac, Ansel Adams, Edward Weston, Orson Welles and Rita Hayworth, just to mention a few. And a few of them stayed here at Deetjen’s Big Sur Inn. I had noticed the sign on many a trip through Big Sur. When I finally gave it a try, I found myself a new favorite place to stay.

Helmuth Deetjen, a Scandinavian, settled in the quiet secluded Castro Canyon of Big Sur in the 1930’s and built this barn. Today it is the reception office and dining room of the Inn.

The rustic guest cabins were built by Helmuth in the manner he learned in Norway. The cabins trail up and are tucked into the pastoral canyon.

The rooms are quaint and cozy. There are no televisions, stereos or phones in the rooms. Cell phones do not have reception at Deetjens. Children under 12 are only allowed if the occupants rent all the shared rooms and walls of a freestanding cabin. You get peace and quiet here.

Wood burning stove, copper kettle and ornate chair. Deetjen’s has a time travel feel. It is easy to imagine the atmosphere of the 1930’s here.

A garden paradise is one step out the door. [4]
References and links





John and Frances


He was with his father in Chicago that day, August 14, 1914, when the call came. “Taliesin destroyed by Fire.” John Lloyd Wright accompanied his father Frank Lloyd Wright on the first departing train. The news, learned in fragments during the trek, couldn’t have been worse. They found not only the house destroyed , but Wright’s mistress Mamah Cheney, for whom he built Taliesin to share, brutally murdered along with her two children. A household employee, gone crazy, set the blaze and bludgeoned the fleeing victims with an ax.

John was at his father’s side to help lift the woman, whom FLLW left his mother for, into a plain box coffin lined with flowers from Mamah’s Taliesin garden.

A Portion of the original Taliesin Wright built to share with Mamah Cheney.

John’s mother Catherine had refused to grant FLLW a divorce so he could marry his mistress. With Victorian era morality prominent then, such a relationship was extremely scandalous. He built a house for the Cheneys in his own neighborhood, Oak Park, Illinois. For Wright to “take” the client’s wife caused outrage. When people saw the architect and Mrs. Cheney happily riding about together in Wright’s Roadster people condemned this as an unabashed flaunting of an immoral lifestyle.

Edwin and Mamah Cheney Residence, Oak Park, Illinois. 1903

In 1909 The couple fled to Europe escaping the controversy for a year. He left behind his wife and six children. These decisions and choices only worsened people’s indignation at home. Taliesin came about as their retreat and safe haven in the quiet countryside of Spring Green, Wisconsin. This vast tract was home territory of his mother, aunts, uncles and grand-parents.

For John the events were a traumatic seal to an otherwise happy carefree childhood. Though in his last year of school John faced classmates shaming remarks and attitudes.

As children he and his five siblings were an unruly lot at Frank Lloyd Wright’s house and studio in Oak Park. In reality there was only one parent figure, mother Catherine. Father was more like a sibling, playmate or rival than a parent. Catherine ran the household. She raised and educated the kids.

Wright’s Home and Studio, 1889, Oak Park, Illinois.

FLLW however created a fantastic atmosphere. The children loved the barrel vaulted playroom he built. It was stocked with playthings appealing to Wright as much as the children. There were building blocks fashioned after the Froebel kindergarten toys he knew as a child. He brought in “funny mechanical toys.” And introduced them to Bach, Beethoven and Mozart just as he had been. It could be said Wright designs are especially appealing whenever he took children into account. (See Wingspread an inventive custom design for clients with children).

FLLW Residence and Studio, 1889, Oak Park, Illinois.

In many respects these Oak Park years were a party. “Papa’s parties were best of all. He had clambakes, tea parties in his studio, cotillions in the large drafting room; gay affairs about the blazing logs that snapped and crackled in the big fireplace. From week to week, month to month, our home was a round of parties. There were parties somewhere all of the time and everywhere some of the time.” Famously, or infamously, it was typical for the Wright children to run amuck while clients and guests were entertained.

Those memories must have seemed distant that day John helped shoulder Mamah’s box coffin to its final resting place at Taliesin.A life in architecture was not a choice he made right away. Like his father he attempted University studies. The end result was also the same; he dropped out. In 1911 he abandoned his mid-west homeland for opportunities on the west coast. He found Portland, Oregon. He worked there briefly with a paving contractor. Later he joined up with his brother Lloyd in San Diego who was employed with landscaping Balboa Park for the Pan Pacific Exposition. Among John’s early odd jobs was pressing clothes. That lasted all but three days when he burned a garment.

John fondly remembered the Oak Park parties, clambakes and social gatherings.
A realization came upon him that a career in architecture was conducive to such a lifestyle.The Pacific Building Company located on University Avenue in east San Diego had a sign out “Draftsman Wanted.” The firm provided both architectural design and contractor services. Some of the draftsmen were from Irving Gill’s firm. Wright drew “cobblestone bungalow” designs before promotion to the Chief Designer’s table.

Looking to move his career up a notch or two, John took a position with the Los Angeles firm of Harrison Albright. Mr. Albright designed the U.S. Grant Hotel in San Diego along with numerous commissions for John D. Spreckles. John really had to “work his way up” at that office. He was a designated chauffeur, errand boy and one-finger typist. But some architectural assignments finally came his way. A house in Escondido which he adapted from one of his father’s projects in Illinois.

Golden West Hotel, John Lloyd Wright, 1913.

And the Workingman’s Hotel (Now called Golden West Hotel) in downtown San Diego. John at 20 years of age explored many of the design elements he enjoyed using his entire career.

But he was still relying upon reference books and the helpfulness of others to render his ideas architecturally. He sought more education and experience.

“I did not want to ask Dad to take me into his office for he had not encouraged me toward this end, so I wrote to Otto Wagner, the great Austrian architect who had a school of modern architecture in Vienna. I asked Mr. Wagner if I could serve him as apprentice for a few years in exchange for my room and board. His prompt reply translated was: “.. .Come on…”

“I felt I was on the way toward making Dad proud of me, so I wrote to him asking his help to buy the ticket to Vienna. I enclosed photographs of the Wood House and the Workingman’s Hotel. He telegraphed: “Meet me in Los Angeles in two weeks…” He thought his office would be better for me than Otto Wagner’s. “I’d like to know what Otto Wagner can do for you that your father can’t do!” This was the way he invited me to work for him.”

John came to know the pressure, discomfort and turmoil many offspring of brilliant famous people came to know. A dominating shadow difficult to escape.

FLLW put John in charge of his Chicago Office in 1913. He enrolled John in engineering courses as well. It was also about this time John married his first wife Jeanette Winters whom he met in Los Angeles.

One of FLLW’s major commissions came in Autumn 1913, the Midway Gardens. His client Ed Waller, whom already lived in a FLLW house, said “I believe Chicago would appreciate a beautiful garden resort. Our people would go there, listen to good music, eat and drink. You know, an outdoor garden something like those little parks around Munich where German families go.”

The dining hall chairs at Taliesin West are from Midway Gardens.

Midway Gardens was near completion when that August 14th call came. “Taliesin destroyed by fire.”

A lull followed the tragedy. Midway Gardens was completed. Then John’s focus was designing children’s toys. It was a talent seemingly rooted in his childhood experiences with toys FLLW had brought into the Oak Park home and studio. The best known John Lloyd Wright toy invention was “Lincoln Logs.”

The next big FLLW commission came in 1917, the Tokio Imperial Hotel. John was appointed on site supervisor. FLLW was very hard on both his architect sons, Lloyd and John. In John’s case FLLW was negligent in paying earned and due salary. In Tokio some funds came in from a smaller Japanese project the Wrights were working on. When John subtracted what was due him and wired the remainder to his father in the U.S. a telegraphed response was received the next day. “You’re fired. Take the next ship home.”

John learned a great deal from his work on Midway Gardens and Imperial Hotel. But much of his time spent after returning from Japan was, again, designing toys. He marketed his product at Marshal Fields Department Store. His brand icon was a red square similar to his father’s signature icon.

In 1920 John took up residence again in an apartment at his childhood home, the Oak Park House and Studio. In 1921 he married his second wife Hazel Lundin. His first child Elizabeth was born there in 1922.

John and his family moved to Michigan City, Indiana in 1923. There in an enclave along Lake Michigan called Long Beach he settled in to build his independent architectural practice. There was a sign. “John Lloyd Wright, Architect” followed by the red square signature icon. John forged a style that paid respect to his father’s principles of Organic Architecture. Yet he consciously filtered the influence. To exercise his own architectural language.

John Lloyd Wright balanced work with time spent with his family. His toy designs were tried at home by his children, Elizabeth and John Junior– “Jack.” They enjoyed an enchanted childhood just as John had with all the toys FLLW brought home.

This Long Beach chapter of John Lloyd Wright’s career represented 15 years of solid creative work. There were numerous fine homes and public works that included an acclaimed school design and a police station. The culmination of his career to this point came with a commission called “Shangri-La.”


Frank Welsh, his wife Frances and step son Lou spent summers at a rented place in Michigan City called “Tree Tops.” But they wished to build their own place. Frances’ son Lou, as a student at the University of Chicago, became familiar with and admired Frank Lloyd Wright’s Robie House of 1909.

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Robie House, Chicago, Illinois, achieved international renown in 1909.

One day there in Michigan City Lou drove by a sign which caught his eye. “John Lloyd Wright, Architect.” Lou thought “Oh my god, he must be related to Frank Lloyd Wright.” He looked him up and found out he was the son.

He told his mother Frances “Well of course the architect you need is this man John Lloyd Wright. And he lives right here in town.” He found out he designed the school there as well. When John Met Francis “electricity” was generated. Perhaps keeping in mind the calamity created by his father’s affair, the relationship that developed between John and Frances was professional and social. The circumstances bringing them together took a long time to develop. John was reluctant to leave his family.

Frances was previously married to a man with the last name Gordon. This was Lou’s father. Frances was a professional writer; a successful metaphysical writer, teacher and practitioner associated with the Christian Science Church. However the Christian Science Church accused her of being a heretic for her independent thinking. There was an inquisition and they tried to kick her out of the church.

So Frances became independent. With her shock of red flaming hair she had a dramatic charismatic presence. All the people she’d been healing, helping and teaching followed her. She had an appeal and persona much like Aimee Semple McPherson.

One man following her away from the Church was also a Christian Science teacher and healer named Frank Welsh. He too was an attractive charismatic figure. A handsome white hair man that was 15 years her senior. The two of them were a dynamic force attracting students and devotees near and far. They held coop at their Michigan City retreat, “Tree Tops.” The two eventually married; Frank adopted Lou.

The success of their enterprise is what led them to John Lloyd Wright and the creation of Shangri-La. It was also called “House of Seven Levels” because of the unique multi level way Wright saddled the structure amongst dunes. Shangri-La was the 1938 culmination of all his experience and skill.

There was one additional cast member in this scene. A wealthy woman who was distantly related to Frances. Frank allowed her to also live at Shangri-La. Having a second woman living in the house caused problems between Frank and Frances. The arrangement greatly irritated Frances. She wanted Frank to ask her to leave, but he wouldn’t do it. She still loved Frank, but when he allowed the woman to remain Frances decided she had enough. She kicked both of them out of the house.

The John and Frances romantic relationship incubated over a long period. In 1942 it hatched. The couple drove to Reno and each got divorces. Then they married. Several factors led them to move away from Michigan City. John was in a similar situation as his father faced. Having left his family to be with a wife’s client evoked hometown disapproval. It is speculated John’s biography of FLLW “My Father Who is on Earth” was indirectly autobiographical as well. Especially in his sympathetic portrayal of the FLLW and Mamah Cheney affair.

Another parallel with John and his father: he also experienced a career changing fire at his studio. His papers, projects on drawing boards were destroyed in a blaze.

More than wanting to rebuild John wanted a fresh start. , Frances wanted to leave Shangri-La and her memories from there behind.
They headed to La Jolla, California where they had friends, The Kelloggs, owners of the La Jolla Beach and Tennis Club. John and Francis stayed there while looking around. When Francis stood upon a hill in Del Mar she brightly said “This is a great place. Let’s build here.” It was a fairly sizable stretch of land. The idea was for John to build their house, then sell off parcels which he also would design houses for. John and Frances built their Del Mar house in 1947.

John Lloyd Wright, in similar respect with his father, was prone to bad judgment and decision making concerning money and business. For instance, he made precious little on his “Lincoln Logs.” He sold his interest too cheaply. When it came to his undeveloped land in Del Mar–which today is among the most valuable pieces of real estate in California–JLLW practically gave away the lots.

The Mckinley family bought one lot that John built a house for. Peggy and Horace Smith, friends of the Wrights, bought another one and built a Wright house. And Bea Kelly bought a lot. She was going to use John as an architect. However Francis and Bea Kelly got into a fight–two hot tempered red heads–and that proposition ended. The parcel sold for $1,200. That was cheap even for that day.

One of Wright’s worst lapses of Judgment concerned maintaining his Architect’s License. When he moved to California from Indiana he didn’t bother to renew his Indiana, Illinois and Ohio licenses. He didn’t want to pay the fees. Any of those certificates would have granted him “reciprocity” in California. He landed in deep legal trouble for practicing architecture without a license. To add insult to injury he was so far removed from the days when he studied engineering that when it came to applying formulas and figuring out problems he never encountered in practicing practical architecture, he failed the exam. More than once.

By this time Frances’ son Lou Welsh and his wife Pat lived in Los Angeles. He practiced Law there. It turned out JLLW was fortunate to have a skilled lawyer for a step son. John’s troubles seemed almost continual. However In the end, to practice his livelihood, John could only state he was an “Architectural Designer,” not an Architect. Even though in all practicality it is not uncommon for established architects to not do their own engineering and number crunching.

Lou had rendered over $10,000 worth of legal work for the Wrights. Payment for those services was in the form of Wright’s next door lot and a JLLW house plan. Lou and Pat paid the construction costs.

“Lou and I met on a blind date,” said Pat Welsh, and It was ZOOM! We were married six weeks later.”

“It was either marriage or never see each other again as I was going on to a job first up north–in California–and then to New York. Getting married looked like the right thing. It felt like the right thing. We took the plunge and I think it paid off.

“We lived in various places from Malibu to Claremont for about 5 years. I taught at Scripps for the last year or two as an assistant in Humanities One, which is the Ancient World. We moved down here and built the house. I lived next door to the Wrights for 28 years which was an interesting experience. ”

John and Frances–The Lifestyle and atmosphere of The Wrights

One of John Lloyd Wright’s guiding principles is “There are no insignificant details.” The slogan pertains to the design elements within his structures. However it actually reflected in their lifestyle as well. Their distinctive choices in colorful clothes, cars, jewelery and accessories made them noticeable individuals.

Pat Welsh remembers “They were flamboyant people. They dressed in a flamboyant manner. John wore a ten-gallon Stetson hat. He always had a cane which he didn’t need. He sported the cane, as his father did too, and pointed to things, swaggered with it on the street. He wore very attractive slacks and gabardine shirts, a silver chain around his neck that had been his grand mothers watch chain, I think, and he had a watch on it that he kept in his pocket. He always smoked a cigar. The ash would grow long and kind of drop down his jacket.

“Francis wore silk gowns that flowed and very very teetery high heels. As she grew older she wore a wig. And she had long eye lashes that were applied–by me! Long red finger nails–even though she liked gardening and was pretty good at it. Lots of make up. They were very dramatic and very well known in La Jolla.

“They went to La Jolla every Wednesday. In those days there was no market in Del Mar, I also went to La Jolla once a week — did all the grocery shopping and took my children when they were little with me. A delightful trip, about 8 miles. There was no freeway then; we took the coastal road. It was a lot quicker getting into La Jolla than it is now–there were very few lights, and it was easy. That was kind of an outing, but I went on a different day.

“The Wrights would go to La Jolla, do their grocery shopping and go to the clothing stores whether they bought anything or not. They liked to go to Magnums. Francis wore a lot of silver jewelry, big rings, and a lot of turquoise, and dangling ear rings. Flaming Red hair. They were quite well known that way.

“The Wrights in the very early days had a Jaguar. it was gray and very handsome but ALWAYS breaking down. They sold that then had Cadillacs–the biggest and most fantastic looking; the most amazing colors they had to pay extra for. Francis never drove. She did when she was younger, but John did the driving.

“In front of their house was a brick wall, like a square, and inside that was poured concrete with a hole in the bottom. They called it The Plunge–It was a swimming pool. It had a wooden structure over it. In Spring they would clean it out every year–which meant I cleaned it out–and let all the water out. As long as it was fresh and nice we swam in it for a few weeks. And that was the end of it. It probably was very dangerous–but we did that. So there was swimming in The Plunge.

“They had a simple garden and patio. They had redwood garden furniture. And the landscape was really very Organic. Big Eucalyptus trees behind the house (Which Francis hated because they dripped leaves–and John loved because they were large). They always argued about it. That was part of their system–constant argument. Francis calling him her “water head.” Insults back and forth. But that’s the way they were. They were flamboyant and used to fight all the time but they loved each other. They came down to dinner every Saturday night and there was always a fight. They’d have a couple of drinks and then they’d fight. It was kind of funny but it did drive me kind of crazy because I like harmony. So I would go outside and get the dog out of the dog fence and take a few deep breaths and go back in!

“My children remember those evenings as marvelous. The Wrights were wonderful–the most loving, kind, thoughtful grand-parents to the kids. John was adorable with them–he loved the kids. He took them every Christmas to the Christmas parade in La Jolla. They took the kids out and bought clothes for them. Took them to Luncheon. They were just neat!”

To have seen John and Frances socially perhaps was a glimpse of the life John once knew with his mother and father at the Oak Park Residence and studio. Those days of clambakes, tea parties, and cotillions.

“We’d put on the music after dinner. The Wrights would dance around and cavort. Everybody would dance. We’d give little shows. And we often had guests–I thought it was good to have guests. Sometimes we’d then go up to their house. My children remember that as a very happy time with their parents, grandparents and guests. The dancing, the cavorting, the jokes, and the music. John played the piano. He played the violin–badly. And other instruments badly. There was always the story that his older brother who was a very good musician would hit him on the head with a dictionary for playing badly.”

In seems John had achieved a fun filled social life that figuratively hearkened Oak Park.

Welsh Residence, Del Mar, 1955, John Lloyd Wright. Pergola covered garden entrance. The Wrights typically didn’t offer “front doors.” Entrance by way of path, garden or patio was fairly common in their plans.

“Frances loved white flowers. She loved white geraniums. They always died on her because they’re the hardest color to grow. She was always replacing them. They had a simple dry garden, lots of rocks.”

Welsh Residence, Del Mar 1955, John Lloyd Wright. The bookshelf is one side of a partition. The opposite side is a utility room. The space is continuous under the slanted beam ceiling. Such spaces gave opportunity for indirect lighting.

“Wright’s interior design was a marriage of Oriental and American Indian art. They had a lot of good stuff. Some of which I still have. Some of which my kids have, especially my older daughter.”

Welsh Residence. A consistent Wright design element was indirect lighting. This “light shelf” seen here in the kitchen extends through all the rooms of the house.

“Francis I’d say was brilliant and talented. She made clothing, screens, jewelry. Wore a lot of Navajo silver. She did amazing art work, color work, lecturing and books. She was a brilliant woman. Frank Lloyd Wright adored her,” remembered Pat.
Pat and Lou knew other members of the Wright family. “There was one Christmas I remember as being difficult. John got into a fight with his brother Lloyd. The wives tried to break them apart. John’s mother Catherine and niece Anne Baxter were there “Anne Baxter opened a champaign bottle and the cork hit her in the eye. Anne was utterly sweet and came to visit from time to time–I loved her.” Eric Lloyd Wright and his wife–I liked very much,” said Pat.

“Frank Lloyd Wright visited once. He came to lecture in La Jolla and San Diego. My daughter Francie sat on his lap, but I was not here.”
Lou didn’t trust the senior Wright. He was certain that he would “fall” for Pat which would only lead to pain and difficulty brought on by Oglivanna, Mrs. Wright. Lou and Pat had been invited to a Wright Easter, but Lou found some “legal matters” to attend to instead. “We could have gone but he chose not to.”

Having the Wrights as in-laws and next door neighbors for 28 years wasn’t easy according to Pat Welsh. “But
amazing enough that is part of what drew me and Lou together.” Pat and Lou supported one another as they coexisted with such colorful individuals with strong if not dominating personalities.

In his later years John’s body of work reveals no real attempt to compete with his fathers highly stylized and dramatic designs. John chose to use the principles of FLLW’s Organic Architecture in a subtle yet faithful way. One could argue these homes, in their more gentle design statement, are more livable than FLLW’s. John felt the work was clearly his own and distinguished. Yet John continually faced a perception that remains to this day. People commonly believe his houses dotting Del Mar’s landscape are Frank Lloyd Wright houses.

In one regard John and his father had a unique bonding. John was with his Father when Taliesin burned and Mamah Cheney was murdered. He’s the only son who apprenticed with Wright, working on two landmark Wright projects–The Midway Gardens and Imperial Hotel. One might imagine the excitement and high hope John must have experienced during this time. Only to have the Father not cut paychecks and to fire his son for taking his due share. The senior Wright later treated John as rival more than a compatriot or son. And course FLLW was famously cruel to his rivals. His colorful antics make for entertaining reading today. But for John it must have been annoying and difficult to live through. And yet the two Wrights had similar tastes in lifestyle. An active social life. The dramatic clothing and hats. Fancy cars. Both Wrights married artistic, strong willed and independent thinking women. Both in different ways had poor money management and business sense. The senior Wright not paying his bills. John not wanting to pay his license fees.

John was fortunate to have Frances managing money and son in law to Lou sorting out his legal troubles. But relatively little was gained monetarily from his toy inventions and real estate investments. His lasting legacy is about the homes and structures he built. It must have been satisfying for him to know in his life time his community, Del Mar, regarded John Lloyd Wright as their treasure. And correctly so.

Pat Welsh is known for, among many other talents, her decorative walls. This is at her JLLW designed home in Del Mar.

Movie Star

She’s a movie star this 1948 house Frank Lloyd Wright built along the coast of Carmel, California. It appears in the 1959 teen coming of age movie A Summer Place starring Sandra Dee and Troy Donahue. Along with the film’s popular theme song Wright’s copper topped house is about the best thing going for the movie. I haven’t seen it on anyone’s best films list.

There’s no more significant aspect of Wright’s approach to design than his blending of building material to the sight. The beautiful stone work here nicely rises from the jagged rocks of the coastline. The term “Dampfer” was used in Germany in 1908 to describe Wright’s famous Robie House in Chicago. It means “Ocean Liner.” Wright never objected to that. It seems he liked to think of himself as the one designer most closely associated with the term streamlined. This home of Mrs. Clinton Walker faces the Pacific Ocean protected by a nautically worthy sea wall.

The massive chimney supports the cantilevered roof so there is no actual weight upon the corbeling bands of glass providing a peripheral view of the Pacific Ocean and Carmel coastline. The Walker House isn’t unique among Wright’s work as a movie star. Arch Obler’s House on Mulholland Drive appears in the film FIVE. The Ennis House has appeared in numerous movies, perhaps most notable was Bladerunner. I will essay the Ennis House on a future post. It was inevitable Hollywood flirted with Wright. He was hugely famous and popular in the 1950’s. A celebrity as much as renowned artist with numerous highly noted appearances on television. Matching wits with Mike Wallace being one of the more legendary encounters. He was also the guest of Hugh Downs and Alistair Cooke among several others. There was quite a buzz about the fact Wright stole Mike Wallace’s prepared questions. And he refused to “rehearse” with Alistair Cooke. Being supremely confident of his ability to think quickly with sharp spicy answers, he didn’t want to lose any spontaneous edge with prepared or scripted material.

Although he was well into his 80’s, this was the most prolific period of his career. “I can’t get the work out fast enough.” His style was hugely influential in all realms of design, especially in the 1950’s. “They even copy my mistakes.”

Warner Brothers wanting Wright to design the sets for Fountainhead seemed a perfect plan. But Wright wanted his standard 10 percent fee. The Studio wasn’t keen on paying out that kind of money for sets. They explained that 10 percent of the sets budget was extreme. But considering this was the great Frank Lloyd Wright they agreed to pay it. However Wright wasn’t talking about ten percent of sets budget. He meant the entire movie budget. End of negotiation; end of discussion.

Alfred Hitchcock wanted Frank Lloyd Wright to design the Vandamm house that appears on Mount Rushmore in North By Northwest. But Hitchcock wasn’t about to pay Wright’s fee either. He instructed set designers to render a house with all the elements the public would recognize as Frank Lloyd Wright. To this day it is easy to watch the movie and think the house was by Wright. Hitchcock–always the master trickster.

Wright had another strong connection to Hollywood. Anne Baxter was his grand-daughter. Wright biographer Brendan Gill: “Having worked hard to gain celebrity, FLLW was happy to meet and mingle with other celebrities. He had reason to be pleased when one of his grand-daughters, actress Anne Baxter, became famous.”

Wright designed a home for Marilyn Monroe and Arthur Miller. He was quite taken with the actress. A famous Wright quote: “I think Ms. Monroe’s architecture is extremely good architecture” Wright wanted no interruption and not be disturbed when presenting Marilyn with drawings and discussing plans. And that went for Mrs. Wright as well–everybody, “stay out!” Even at 90 years of age Wright especially enjoyed his designed environment when it was graced by Marilyn’s presence. Monroe and Miller never built their FLLW circular\rectangular house. The marriage ended.

Ghost Town

Rhyolite. It was once the third largest city in Nevada. Boomtown it was. Between 1904 and 1908 she was the queen of mining towns. Not just your ordinary canvass and wood makeshift structures. Rhyolite was solidly built with obvious intentions of staying around awhile. It boasted all the cosmopolitan features. Water and power. There were forty-five saloons, an opera house, an orchestra, a number of dance halls, a slaughterhouse, two railroad depots, and three public swimming pools serving as many as 10,000 residents.

Looking out the school house window openings to the town. The Cook Bank building, left. Overbury Building (jewelry store), center. General Store, right.

Two things killed Rhyolite. The gold mines tapped out. City investors pulled out when the national economy turned sour. By 1911 the population was down to 675. In 1916 utilities were shut off. Boomtown became ghost town.

Cook Bank Building

This substantial structure of 3 stories cost $90,000. It had marble floors imported from Italy, mahogany woodwork, electric lights, telephone and inside plumbing. Various interior components and fixtures were sold off when Rhyolite shut down. Staircases, banisters, floors, etc., live on today as parts of various buildings scattered through the region.

General Store

Rhyolite is perhaps the best known of all ghost towns. Likely the most photographed. It has served as a set for numerous motion pictures and music videos.

Train Station

Three Railroad lines came through Rhyolite. The Depot today appears in use by someone. The structure seems restorable to me.

Bottle House of 1906.

The walls are completely made of glass bottles. The house has lived on through the years as a tourist attraction. However upon my visit I didn’t see any caretaker. It seemed closed up.


Fourteen thousand square feet of floor space. A lot of modern tract homes seem to be headed in that direction, but for 1937 this was a bold size for a house. This is Frank Lloyd Wright’s “Wingspread,” on the outskirts of Racine, Wisconsin. The home he designed for Herbert Johnson of the Johnson Wax Company. The house plans were completed a year after he built their renown cooperate headquarters in central Racine.

It is a “zone” plan. Areas of the house are separate zones, or wings. Wingspread has four wings. One for Master Bedrooms, the second for the children’s rooms, a third for guests, the fourth for service and servants.


As floor plan indicates where all four wings join together is called The Great Hall. Wright liked to call it the Wigwam. It is the living room. The tall central roof is punctuated neatly with stacked rows and layers of skylights. Almost like banks of movie set lights. The play of light in a Wright structure is always remarkable.

A massive tall chimney structure divides the Wigwam into four areas. Entrance, living room proper, library, and dining room. The above photo is looking from the library to the dining area.

WingSpread_826The Wigwam’s towering vertical brick hub contains 5 fireplaces on 4 sides including one for an upper level. In his Autobiography Wright expressed complete satisfaction with the high level of quality and workmanship found in the home’s woodwork and furniture. All his design. “(Wingspread) has the best brickwork I have seen in my life, and the materials of construction and the workmanship throughout are everywhere substantial”


This is looking down on the same area shown in the previous two photos. Wright provided views from upper levels to lower ones throughout his designs. It is an element of his unequaled ability to manipulate space and perspectives. Making larger rooms seem more intimate. Making smaller spaces seem vast. The floors are of concrete in four foot squares. Radiant floor heating. The soft gloss is achieved, as you might guess, by a Johnson Wax. One that was specifically developed for this type of floor upon completion of both the Johnson Wax building and residence. Many a Wright client with residences built after this became Johnson Wax customers.


If you’ve seen more than one Wright structure, then you’ll know he loved his fire places. This is the 5th fireplace of the Wigwam, up on the second level. Maybe more appropriate to call it a forest-fire place. Actually the tall log idea didn’t work. The logs fall out too easily.


The spiral staircase is a fun and adventurous touch. And for good reason. He had in mind the Johnson children. The spiral staircase leads to a delightful lookout or crow’s nest on the roof. Indeed the children did greatly enjoy this feature.


The spiral staircase top flight. Open ribs of the interior staircase enclosure are repeated above the roof. A skin of glass connects the ribs for a weather tight transparent shelter. The tile roof tops and swimming pool below. The Johnson children were traumatized and emotionally distressed at the prospect of moving here. They’d be leaving a lot friends in the city by living out here in the hinterlands of Racine. But alas, private swimming pools were a rarity in 1938–not to mention a Frank Lloyd Wright designed crow’s nest. They soon found out all the kids clamored for visits to par-take in the fun this house had to offer. Mr. Johnson was a pilot. He’d buzz the tower, so to speak, in his airplane which excited the children to no end.




Wright referred to this as a belvedere rather than a crows nest. Even with construction of Wingspread well under way, it was a project that was nearly abandoned. And it all had to do with an Oman concerning wings of another breed. Wright talked about it in his autobiography. An old worker freaked out one day. A white dove persistently hovered over the belvedere. “Bad Oman. The lady of the house will never live here.” Johnson had remarried in 1936. This house was to be a custom made newlywed’s home.

With the house three-fourths finished Mrs. Johnson passed away. Herbert Johnson lost all interest and desire for the project. Said Wright “I, friend now as well as architect, did my best to represent to him what I thought his young wife would have wanted.” Wright firmly believed that upon experiencing life within a space he and his wife dreamed and worked on brought Johnson back again. Johnson’s son observed years later “I guess I couldn’t argue with the fact that the house had a major impact on my father, rehabilitating him to a new life without his young bride.”


Wright describes the Master Bedroom wing as a luxurious mezzanine with a continuous balcony. The extreme cantilever is synonymous with Frank Lloyd Wright.


The weathered wood exterior is wide plank cypress. The bricks are from batches also used in the Johnson Wax building. One instance of savings in an otherwise characteristic M.O. of Wright: going over budget. Way over budget. Johnson was quoted as saying: “It started off with Wright working for me. Then we worked as equals. Finally I was working for him.”


Those are wild grapevines on all the trellises, pergolas and cantilevered overheads. Wright used landscaping to tone down the sheer volume and mass of the structure.

Pergola and planter detail

Under this pergola yet another massive fireplace for evenings outdoors.

The garden. Note the vine supports. Wright employed the same use of ordinary galvanized pipe painted his “Cherokee Red” for his own home, Taliesin, in Spring Green, also in Wisconsin.  Today Wingspread no longer serves as a private residence but is home of the Johnson Foundation which is set up to facilitate conferences.  In short Wingspan is a conference center and a living Wright/Johnson Family museum open for tours.

Herbert Johnson later married actress Irene Purcell. When she moved into Wingspread she found herself akin to the new Mrs. De Winter in the story Rebecca. She struggled to fit in at Wingspread just as her fictional counterpart did in the mansion Manderley. And as far as Irene Purcell was concerned, the evil Mrs. Danvers in her story was none other than Frank Lloyd Wright.


After Irene and Herbert Johnson had been married a few years, they sent out an invitation to Wright for a visit. By this time Irene had tried to leave her personal touch on the house. She brought in paintings and redecorated. Wright spent the night on this visit but was up at 4 a.m. undoing all the decorating that had been done. He pulled out furniture and changed paintings.

She wasn’t impressed or amused. Not being a part of its creation as the prior Mrs. Johnson had been, Irene never felt altogether comfortable in Wingspread. Nearly all clients of Wright came to know one inescapable reality. You not only lived in a Frank Lloyd Wright house, but you also figuratively and almost literally lived with Frank Lloyd Wright. There are probably dozens of such stories. I once met members of the Bazett family who lived in a Wright House in Hillsborough, California. They were awakened early one Sunday morning. Squeak, squeak, squeak.

There at the window in his low cut wide brim hat and cape was the 80 something year old Frank Lloyd Wright cleaning windows with his white handkerchief. Upon being invited in he didn’t miss the opportunity to move a few items of furniture around. He was also known to bring into a house certain objects of art he considered complimentary. A vase or oriental ginger jar perhaps. To swap out items he objected to. Everyone’s reaction to Wright’s antics varied. But by and large having Wright in your house moving furniture around was considered by most clients like having Mozart sit and play the piano for you. Moments in their lives that were relived time and again in stories proudly told and retold.


The Eggmen

John Lennon’s famous quote “Before Elvis there was nothing” could especially be said about Giotto di Bondone (1266-1337). When the glory that was Rome faded into the Middle Ages, art became highly stylized and flat dimensionally. Naturalistic perspective and depiction vanished. At the precipice of The Renaissance Giotto nearly stands alone in his discarding the centuries old framework of painting and art. Not since Roman times was the human form naturally depicted. He reinvented soft rounded deep modeling effects using light and dark values. Giotto marks the turning point toward The Renaissance. The above Madonna and Child is in Firenze’s Uffizi Gallery.


Giotto was also an accomplished architect. The Bell Tower at Santa Maria del Fiore, Firenze, is his. He never saw the completed work. He died three years after construction began. It took more than fifty years to build.

Giotto’s bell tower is sublime. But the grandiose architectural element of Santa Maria del Fiore is the celebrated dome by Filippo Brunelleschi. The achievement can not be over stated. Architectural dome engineering and construction know-how died with the Romans. It wasn’t until Brunelleschi closely studied the Roman artifacts first hand (especially the well preserved Pantheon in Rome) that architecture was reinvented. Being this was unexplored design in its day, Brunelleschi faced a counter current of resistance and opposition. The Guild of Wool Merchants who sponsored and over saw the project wanted to know just how in the world such a large dome could be accomplished. Brunelleschi asked the members of the committee to demonstrate to him how they would stand an egg on the table. No one could. “Impossible,” they said. With that, Brunelleschi cracked the end off the egg and proceeded to stand the shell on the table. When the members of the committee protested that any one of them could have done that, Brunelleschi explained that was exactly his point. If he told the committee how he planned to execute his concept, all would claim that they could have done it. After several months of arguing, the committee allowed him to proceed and work began on the dome in the summer of 1420.

The Pantheon, Rome, A.D. 118-25. Besides its position as one of history’s greatest architectural masterpieces, its survival from ancient times to modern day Rome is miraculous. Step in from the noisy hot streets of Rome to a cool calm quiet atmosphere where time seems frozen. You may almost hear the distant whisper of Marcus Aurelius. That the structure is so well preserved is a testament to Roman engineering and master building. One can only ponder a question; if the Pantheon had not survived into Brunelleschi‘s time, how long to reinvent such engineering from scratch?

Locals simply refer to Santa Maria del Fiore as “Il Duomo.” It remains to this day the most iconic Feature of Firenze. A site on the landscape still commanding the most attention.

Michaelangelo’s David, Firenze Italy.
Michaelangelo went to school, so to speak, with The Duomo before designing Saint Peters in Rome.

Another source of Michaelangelo’s admiration was Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Doors of the Baptistery, Firenze.

Michaelangelo fondly referred to them as “The Gates of Paradise.”

The doors consist of ten panels. Each frame depicts a scene from either the New or Old Testament. Ghiberti used a painter’s approach to composition but used his sculpture and architectural skill to create enormous visual depth. As an architect, Ghiberti was the only other considered candidate besides Brunelleschi for designing the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore. And Brunelleschi was a possible choice for the commission Baptistery doors. Much competition for the prized jobs during The Renaissance.

The Gates of Paradise have been removed from the Baptistery and have undergone restoration. Replicas are there now. The originals will be kept indoors under a protective transparent encasement after completing a world tour. They maybe coming to a city near you.

Smithsonian Magazine has a complete story of the restoration and history of these magnificent panels.